|Yazar||:||Ord. Prof. Suut Kemal Yetkin, Ord. Prof. Hilmi Ziya Ülken...|
|Ölçü||:||16,5 x 24 cm|
In this work we have tried to give a brief account of the cultures of the Seljuk Turks and Turks who ruled in Anatolia after them. A few words about the ancient Turkish states would be useful in order to explain the origin and nature of the Anatolian Turks.
The earliest references to the Turks in history are to be found in the Chinese chronicles recording the events of the Ilnd century B.C. Having fought against the Chinese for many years, sometimes alone and sometimes in alliance with the Moguls, these early Turkish tribes founded in the beginning of the Vth century A.D. the Göktürk Empire - called the Tukyu Empire by the Chinese - which extended from Manchuria to the Crimea, and such states as Hazar, Bulgar, Pechenek, Kuman and Uz in the lands extending from the Caspian Sea to the Danube.
We learn from the Orhun Inscriptions and works written in the Uigur alphabet and from the accounts given by their neighbours that the Göktürk Empire and the Uigur State which succeeded it, enjoyed a very high level of culture and civilisation . The Göktürk and Uigur alphabets, the 12 animal calendar, and numerous flourishing cities, a highly developed trade, economic and diplomatic relations with China, Persia and Byzantium bear testimony to this high level of civilisation. For example, the Uigur Turks knew how to make paper long before it was manufactured in Europe in the Xlth century. They had learned the technique of making paper from the Chinese hundreds of years before, and established a paper mill at Samarkand...